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To deepen our knowledge of the regulatory events underlying auxin-mediated adventitious root formation in carnation stem cuttings, we used RNA-sequencing data to confirm the expression profiles of some auxin homeostasis genes during the rooting of two carnation cultivars with different rooting behaviors.

We also confirmed the presence of several auxin-related metabolites in the stem cutting tissues. Our findings offer a comprehensive overview of auxin homeostasis genes in carnation and provide a solid foundation for further experiments investigating the role of auxin homeostasis in the regulation of adventitious root formation in carnation.

Yordanov, Yordan S. In this report, we further test whether CDH exhibited the hormonal-like response.

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The application of CDH and an inducer of HO-1, hemin, were able to induce the up-regulation of cucumber HO-1 gene CsHO1 expression and thereafter the promotion of adventitious rooting in cucumber explants. However, the application of ascorbic acid AsA , a well-known antioxidant in plants, failed to exhibit similar inducible effect on adventitious root formation. In short, above results illustrated that the response of CDH in the induction of cucumber adventitious rooting might be through HOdependent mechanism and calcium signaling.

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In plants, salicylic acid SA is a signaling molecule that regulates disease resistance responses, such as systemic acquired resistance SAR and hypertensive response HR. SA has been implicated as participating in various biotic and abiotic stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SA in adventitious root formation ARF in mung bean Phaseolus radiatus L hypocotyl cuttings. We observed that hypocotyl treatment with SA could significantly promote the adventitious root formation, and its effects were dose and time dependent.

The determination of the endogenous H2O2 level indicated that the seedlings treated with SA could induce H2O2 accumulation compared with the control treatment. Our results revealed a distinctive role of SA in the promotion of adventitious rooting via the process of H2O2 accumulation. This conclusion was further supported by antioxidant enzyme activity assays. Based on these results, we conclude that the accumulation of free H2O2 might be a downstream event in response to SA-triggered adventitious root formation in mung bean seedlings.

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The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. Tip cuttings of donor plants were severed before and after loss of rooting competence of microcuttings to test the hypothesis that auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis regulate rooting competence decline.

There were no significant changes in concentration of carbohydrates, flavonoids, or proteins before and after the loss of rooting capacity. Peroxidase EC 1. Auxin concentration showed the opposite pattern.

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  6. In good agreement, TAA1 , a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, had lower expression after loss of rooting capacity. The same applied to the auxin receptor gene TIR1 , suggesting reduced auxin sensitivity. On the other hand, genes associated with auxin response repression TPL , IAA12 or with the action of cytokinins, the rhizogenesis inhibitor-related ARR1 , showed higher expression in plants with lower rooting competence.

    Taken together, data suggest that age negatively affects E. Decreased endogenous auxin concentration, possibly caused by less biosynthesis, lower auxin sensitivity, higher expression of genes inhibiting auxin action, as well as of genes related to the action of cytokinins, appear to play roles in this process. In good agreement, TAA1, a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, had lower expression after loss of rooting capacity.

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    The same applied to the auxin receptor gene TIR1, suggesting reduced auxin sensitivity. On the other hand, genes associated with auxin response repression TPL, IAA12 or with the action of cytokinins, the rhizogenesis inhibitor-related ARR1, showed higher expression in plants with lower rooting competence. Proteomic changes in the base of chrysanthemum cuttings during adventitious root formation. Background A lack of competence to form adventitious roots by cuttings of Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum morifolium is an obstacle for the rapid fixation of elite genotypes.

    Results The protein profiles during ARF were analyzed by comparing the 2-DE gels between 0-day-old just severed from the stock plant and 5-day-old cutting bases of chrysanthemum. Twenty types of differentially accumulated proteins including ACC oxidase CmACO were further analyzed at the transcription level, most of which were in accordance with the results of 2-DE.

    Moreover, the protein abundance changes of CmACO are supported by western blot experiments. Ethylene evolution was higher during the ARF compared with day 0 after cutting, while silver nitrate, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, pretreatment delayed the ARF. Conclusions The proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum allowed us to identify proteins whose expression was related to ARF.

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    Dark exposure of petunia cuttings strongly improves adventitious root formation and enhances carbohydrate availability during rooting in the light. The effect of temporary dark exposure on adventitious root formation ARF in Petuniaxhybrida 'Mitchell' cuttings was investigated. Histological and metabolic changes in the cuttings during the dark treatment and subsequent rooting in the light were recorded. Dark exposure prior to rooting increased, accelerated and synchronized ARF.

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    The rooting period was reduced from 16 days non-treated cuttings to 9 days treated cuttings. Under optimum conditions, despite the reduced rooting period, dark-exposed cuttings produced a higher number and length of roots than non-treated cuttings. An increase in temperature to 20 degrees C during the dark treatment or extending the cold dark exposure to 14 days caused a similar enhancement of root development compared to non-treated cuttings. Root meristem formation had already started during the dark treatment and was enhanced during the subsequent rooting period.

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    Levels of soluble sugars glucose, fructose and sucrose and starch in leaf and basal stem tissues significantly decreased during the seven days of dark exposure. This depletion was, however, compensated during rooting after 6 and 24h for soluble sugars in leaves and the basal stem, respectively, whereas the sucrose level in the basal stem was already increased at 6h.

    The association of higher carbohydrate levels with improved rooting in previously dark-exposed versus non-treated cuttings indicates that increased post-darkness carbohydrate availability and allocation towards the stem base contribute to ARF under the influence of dark treatment and provide energy for cell growth subject to a rising sink intensity in the base of the cutting.

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    Copyright Elsevier GmbH. When stress and development go hand in hand: main hormonal controls of adventitious rooting in cuttings. Adventitious rooting AR is a multifactorial response leading to new roots at the base of stem cuttings, and the establishment of a complete and autonomous plant. AR has two main phases: a induction, with a requirement for higher auxin concentration; b formation, inhibited by high auxin and in which anatomical changes take place.

    The first stages of this process in severed organs necessarily include wounding and water stress responses which may trigger hormonal changes that contribute to reprogram target cells that are competent to respond to rooting stimuli. At severance, the roles of jasmonate and abscisic acid are critical for wound response and perhaps sink strength establishment, although their negative roles on the cell cycle may inhibit root induction.

    Strigolactones may also inhibit AR. A reduced concentration of cytokinins in cuttings results from the separation of the root system, whose tips are a relevant source of these root induction inhibitors. The combined increased accumulation of basipetally transported auxins from the shoot apex at the cutting base is often sufficient for AR in easy-to- root species.

    The role of peroxidases and phenolic compounds in auxin catabolism may be critical at these early stages right after wounding. The events leading to AR strongly depend on mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of minerals and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at cutting bases. Auxins play a central role in AR.

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    Auxin transporters control auxin canalization to target cells. There, auxins act primarily through selective proteolysis and cell wall loosening, via their receptor proteins TIR1 transport inhibitor response 1 and ABP1 Auxin-Binding Protein 1.

    A complex microRNA circuitry is involved in the control of auxin response factors essential for gene expression in AR. After root establishment, new hormonal controls take place, with auxins being required at lower concentrations for root meristem maintenance and cytokinins.

    In order to investigate the gene expression pattern during adventitious root development, RNA of Pinus contorta hypocotyls, pulse-treated with the auxin indolebutyric acid and harvested at distinct developmental time points of root development, was hybridized to microarrays containing 2, cDNAs from Pinus taeda. Over the period of observation of root development, the transcript levels of genes changed significantly.

    In addition, there were changes in transcript abundance of genes related to water stress. During the root meristem formation phase the transcript abundances of genes involved in auxin transport, auxin responsive transcription, and cell wall synthesis, and of a gene encoding a B-box zinc finger-like protein, increased, while those encoding proteins involved in cell wall weakening decreased.

    Changes of transcript abundance of genes related to water stress during the root meristem formation and root formation phase indicate that the plant roots had become functional in water transport. Simultaneously, genes involved in auxin transport were up-regulated, while genes related to cell wall modification were down-regulated. Finally, during the root elongation phase down-regulation of transcripts encoding proteins involved in cell replication and stress occurred.